Battery Management Systems (BMS) are electronic systems designed to monitor and manage the performance of a battery system, such as Li-Ion, NiMH, or NiCd batteries. BMSs allow for the optimization of battery performance, by monitoring and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of the battery, as well as the voltage and temperature of each cell. BMSs can also provide safety features, such as overcharging and undercharging protection, as well as short circuit protection.